Viking Age

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Viking Age

The Eastern Limfjord in the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Period. Internal Structures and External Relations. Acta Archaeologica 25– CrossRef. The North West in the Viking Age is a project led by Dr Clare Downham, a medieval historian at the University of Liverpool. Using the app, you. Many translated example sentences containing "Viking Age" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.

Carolingian-Ottonian disc brooches: early Christian symbols in Viking age Denmark

Why Gotland? Jonathan Shepard PART I: COGS AND DRIVERS2. Reading between the lines: Tracking slaves and slavery in the early middle ages David. The Viking Age Podcast is here! Get the most informative and unique takes on all things Minnesota Vikings football from The Viking Age editor and host, Adam. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen!

Viking Age Why are Vikings so Closely Associated with Axes? Video

The Viking Age: Every Year

Viking Age Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viking Age. Contemporaries of the Vikings were awed by their ships and sailing skills. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Monopoly Mini. Danish prehistory culminated in the Viking Age, the period from until AD. Erlebe die Welt der Wikinger, wo Freiheit, Macht & Furcht regieren. Ohne Download spielen! Wikingerzeit ist ein Begriff der Geschichtswissenschaft. Er wird auf Nordeuropa angewendet, soweit es von den Wikingern bevölkert war, und auf Mittel-, Süd- und Westeuropa, insofern sie von deren Angriffen betroffen waren. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures Book 14) (English Edition) eBook: Somerville, Angus A., McDonald. The Viking Age: A Reader, Third Edition (Readings in Medieval Civilizations and Cultures) | Somerville, Angus A., McDonald, R. Andrew | ISBN.

The end of the Viking-era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.

Norwegians would no longer be called Vikings. In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung appr is considered to be the transition from the Viking age to the Middle Ages, because he was the first Christian king of the Swedes and he is associated with a growing influence of the church in what is today southwestern and central Sweden.

The clinker -built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters. They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of north-western Europe.

Rurik also expanded to the east and in became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod which means "new city" on the Volkhov River.

His successors moved further, founding the state of Kievan Rus with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until , the time of Mongol invasion.

Other Norse people, particularly those from the area that is now modern-day Sweden and Norway, continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople.

Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings would reportedly turn them on their sides and drag them across the shallows into deeper waters.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly hard-hit by these raiders, who could sail up the Seine with near impunity.

Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons , a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman but carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in There are various theories concerning the causes of the Viking invasions.

For people living along the coast, it would seem natural to seek new land by the sea. Another reason was that during this period England, Wales and Ireland, which were divided into many different warring kingdoms, were in internal disarray and became easy prey.

The Franks, however, had well-defended coasts and heavily fortified ports and harbours. Pure thirst for adventure may also have been a factor.

A reason for the raids is believed by some to be over-population caused by technological advances, such as the use of iron.

Although another cause could well have been pressure caused by the Frankish expansion to the south of Scandinavia and their subsequent attacks upon the Viking peoples.

Another possible contributing factor is that Harald I of Norway "Harald Fairhair" had united Norway around this time, and the bulk of the Vikings were displaced warriors who had been driven out of his kingdom and who had nowhere to go.

Consequently, these Vikings became raiders, in search of subsistence and bases to launch counter-raids against Harald.

One theory that has been suggested is that the Vikings would plant crops after the winter and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea, then returned home with their loot, in time to harvest the crops.

One important centre of trade was at Hedeby. Close to the border with the Franks, it was effectively a crossroads between the cultures, until its eventual destruction by the Norwegians in an internecine dispute around However, those items could also have been Byzantine imports, and there is no reason to assume that the Varangians travelled significantly beyond Byzantium and the Caspian Sea.

The raiders killed the monks and captured the valuables. This raid marks the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion", made possible by the Viking longship.

While the initial raiding groups were small, it is believed that a great amount of planning was involved. The Norwegians raided during the winter between and , rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.

In Vikings overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.

In they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. The Anglo-Saxon dioceses before Normal diocesan life was greatly disrupted in England during the Viking Age.

They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing the Viking community of Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the brothers Halfdan Ragnarsson and Ivar the Boneless, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. The Viking presence continued throughout the reign of the Danish King Cnut the Great — , after which a series of inheritance arguments weakened power of his descendants.

By , the Vikings were in service in England as Thingmen , a personal bodyguard to the King of England. They were offered payment, the Danegeld , which lasted from to and stopped Viking raids for almost twenty years.

The Viking presence dwindled until , when the invading Norsemen lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge.

Nineteen days later the Normans, themselves descended from Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

The Vikings conducted extensive raids in Ireland at first they founded Limerick in , then established a settlement near Waterford in , invaded Dublin and maintained control until , and founded trading ports in Cork in the 9th century.

The Vikings and Scandinavians settled down and intermixed with the Irish. Literature, crafts, and decorative styles in Ireland and Britain reflected Scandinavian culture.

Vikings traded at Irish markets in Dublin. Excavations found imported fabrics from England, Byzantium, Persia and central Asia.

Dublin became so crowded by the 11th century that houses were constructed outside the town walls. The Vikings pillaged monasteries on Ireland's west coast in and then spread out to cover the rest of the coastline.

The north and east of the island were most affected. During the first 40 years, the raids were conducted by small, mobile Viking groups.

By , the groups consisted of large fleets of Viking ships. From , the Vikings began establishing permanent bases at the coasts.

Dublin was the most significant settlement in the long term. The Irish became accustomed to the Viking presence. In some cases they became allies and married each other.

Some believe that the increased number of invaders coincided with Scandinavian leaders' desires to control the profitable raids on the western shores of Ireland.

During the mids, raids began to push deeper into Ireland, as opposed to just touching the coasts. Navigable waterways made this deeper penetration possible.

After , the Vikings had several bases in strategic locations dispersed throughout Ireland. Their North Germanic language , Old Norse , became the mother-tongue of present-day Scandinavian languages.

By , a strong central authority appears to have been established in Jutland , and the Danes were beginning to look beyond their own territory for land, trade, and plunder.

In Norway, mountainous terrain and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. Communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in lowland Denmark.

By , some 30 small kingdoms existed in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communication between the Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world.

In the eighth century, Scandinavians began to build ships of war and send them on raiding expeditions which started the Viking Age. The North Sea rovers were traders, colonisers, explorers, and plunderers.

Many theories are posited for the cause of the Viking invasions; the will to explore likely played a major role. At the time, England, Wales, and Ireland were vulnerable to attack, being divided into many different warring kingdoms in a state of internal disarray, while the Franks were well defended.

Overpopulation, especially near the Scandes , was possibly influential this theory regarding overpopulation is disputed.

As a result, these people sought for new bases to launch counter-raids against Harald. Vikings would plant crops after the winter and go raiding as soon as the ice melted on the sea, then return home with their loot in time to harvest the crops.

Debate among scholars is ongoing as to why the Scandinavians began to expand from the eighth through 11th centuries. These models constitute much of what is known about the motivations for and the causes of the Viking Age.

In all likelihood, the beginning of this age was the result of some combination of the aforementioned models. The earliest date given for a Viking raid is , when according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle , a group of Danes sailed to the Isle of Portland in Dorset it was wrongly recorded as They were mistaken for merchants by a royal official.

When asked to come to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods, they murdered the official.

It was recorded in the Anglo—Saxon Chronicle that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne the generally accepted date is actually 8 June, not January [14] :.

This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament.

These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island Lindisfarne , by rapine and slaughter.

In , according to the Annals of Ulster , a serious attack was made on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona , which was followed in by raids upon the northern coast of Ireland.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was particularly devastated by these raiders, who could sail up the Seine with near impunity. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons , a string of Norse raids began, culminating in a gradual Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

The clinker -built longships used by the Scandinavians were uniquely suited to both deep and shallow waters. They extended the reach of Norse raiders, traders, and settlers along coastlines and along the major river valleys of north-western Europe.

Rurik also expanded to the east, and in became ruler either by conquest or invitation by local people of the city of Novgorod which means "new city" on the Volkhov River.

His successors moved further, founding the early East Slavic state of Kievan Rus' with the capital in Kiev. This persisted until , when the Mongols invaded Russia.

Other Norse people continued south to the Black Sea and then on to Constantinople. Whenever these Viking ships ran aground in shallow waters, the Vikings reportedly turned them on their sides and dragged them across the shallows into deeper waters.

In , French King Charles the Simple was able to make an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo , a chieftain of disputed Norwegian or Danish origins.

In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and undertook to defend the northern region of France against the incursions of other Viking groups.

Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers not only identified themselves as Norman, but also carried the Norman language a Romance language with Germanic influence , and their Norman culture, into England in In Scandinavia, the Viking Age is considered to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the establishment of Christianity as the dominant religion.

The end of the Viking era in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in Although Olafr Haraldsson's later known as Olav the Holy army lost the battle, Christianity spread, partly on the strength of rumours of miraculous signs after his death.

In Sweden, the reign of king Olov Skötkonung c. Norse beliefs persisted until the 12th century. Olof being the last king in Scandinavia to adopt a Christianity marked a definite end to the Viking Age.

Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the 13th and the 15th centuries; the Western Isles and the Isle of Man remained under Scandinavian authority until Orkney and Shetland belonged to the king of Norway as late as According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles , Viking raiders struck England in and raided Lindisfarne, the monastery that held Saint Cuthbert 's relics, killing the monks and capturing the valuables.

The raid marked the beginning of the "Viking Age of Invasion". Great but sporadic violence continued on England's northern and eastern shores, with raids continuing on a small scale across coastal England.

While the initial raiding groups were small, a great amount of planning is believed to have been involved. The Vikings raided during the winter of —, rather than the usual summer, having waited on an island off Ireland.

In , they overwintered for the first time in England, on the island of Thanet , Kent. In , a raiding party overwintered a second time, at the Isle of Sheppey in the Thames estuary.

In , they reverted to Thanet for their winter encampment. They proceeded to cross England into Northumbria and captured York, establishing a Viking community in Jorvik , where some settled as farmers and craftsmen.

Most of the English kingdoms, being in turmoil, could not stand against the Vikings. In , Northumbria became the northern kingdom of the coalescing Danelaw , after its conquest by the Ragnarsson brothers, who installed an Englishman, Ecgberht , as a puppet king.

Aided by the Great Heathen Army which had already overrun much of England from its base in Jorvik , Bagsecg's forces, and Halfdan's forces through an alliance , the combined Viking forces raided much of England until , when they planned an invasion of Wessex.

On 8 January , Bagsecg was killed at the Battle of Ashdown along with his earls. As a result, many of the Vikings returned to northern England, where Jorvic had become the centre of the Viking kingdom, but Alfred of Wessex managed to keep them out of his country.

Alfred and his successors continued to drive back the Viking frontier and take York. In , the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard started a series of raids against England, culminating in a full-scale invasion that led to Sweyn being crowned king of England in Sweyn's son, Cnut the Great , won the throne of England in through conquest.

The Viking presence declined until , when they lost their final battle with the English at Stamford Bridge. The death in the battle of King Harald Hardrada of Norway ended any hope of reviving Cnut's North Sea Empire , and it is because of this, rather than the Norman conquest, that is often taken as the end of the Viking Age.

Nineteen days later, a large army containing and led by senior Normans, themselves mostly male-line descendants of Norsemen, invaded England and defeated the weakened English army at the Battle of Hastings.

The army invited others from across Norman gentry and ecclesiastical society to join them. In , small bands of Vikings began plundering monastic settlements along the coast of Gaelic Ireland.

The Annals of Ulster state that in the Vikings plundered Howth and "carried off a great number of women into captivity".

The first were at Dublin and Linn Duachaill. The Vikings also briefly allied with various Irish kings against their rivals. They were important trading hubs, and Viking Dublin was the biggest slave port in western Europe.

These Viking territories became part of the patchwork of kingdoms in Ireland. Vikings intermarried with the Irish and adopted elements of Irish culture, becoming the Norse-Gaels.

Sigtrygg Silkbeard was "a patron of the arts, a benefactor of the church, and an economic innovator" who established Ireland's first mint , in Dublin.

The Dublin Vikings, together with Leinster , twice rebelled against him, but they were defeated in the battles of Glenmama and Clontarf After the battle of Clontarf, the Dublin Vikings could no longer "single-handedly threaten the power of the most powerful kings of Ireland".

While few records are known, the Vikings are thought to have led their first raids in Scotland on the holy island of Iona in , the year following the raid on the other holy island of Lindisfarne , Northumbria.

In , a large Norse fleet invaded via the River Tay and River Earn , both of which were highly navigable, and reached into the heart of the Pictish kingdom of Fortriu.

After four months, its water supply failed, and the fortress fell. The Vikings are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland.

These prisoners may have included the ruling family of Alt Clut including the king Arthgal ap Dyfnwal , who was slain the following year under uncertain circumstances.

The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of the realm. The land that now comprises most of the Scottish Lowlands had previously been the northernmost part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria , which fell apart with its Viking conquest; these lands were never regained by the Anglo-Saxons, or England.

The upheaval and pressure of Viking raiding, occupation, conquest and settlement resulted in alliances among the formerly enemy peoples that comprised what would become present-day Scotland.

Over the subsequent years, this Viking upheaval and pressure led to the unification of the previously contending Gaelic, Pictish, British, and English kingdoms, first into the Kingdom of Alba , and finally into the greater Kingdom of Scotland.

The last vestiges of Norse power in the Scottish seas and islands were completely relinquished after another years.

The Norse settlers were to some extent integrating with the local Gaelic population see Norse-Gaels in the Hebrides and Man.

These areas were ruled over by local Jarls , originally captains of ships or hersirs. The Jarl of Orkney and Shetland, however, claimed supremacy.

In his attempt to unite Norway, he found that many of those opposed to his rise to power had taken refuge in the Isles. From here, they were raiding not only foreign lands but were also attacking Norway itself.

He organised a fleet and was able to subdue the rebels, and in doing so brought the independent Jarls under his control, many of the rebels having fled to Iceland.

He found himself ruling not only Norway, but also the Isles, Man, and parts of Scotland. A fleet was sent against them led by Ketil Flatnose to regain control.

On his success, Ketil was to rule the Sudreys as a vassal of King Harald. His grandson, Thorstein the Red , and Sigurd the Mighty , Jarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle.

Ketil declared himself King of the Isles. Ketil was eventually outlawed and, fearing the bounty on his head, fled to Iceland.

The Norse-Gaelic Kings of the Isles continued to act semi independently, in forming a defensive pact with the Kings of Scotland and Strathclyde.

Magnus and King Edgar of Scotland agreed on a treaty. The islands would be controlled by Norway, but mainland territories would go to Scotland.

The King of Norway nominally continued to be king of the Isles and Man. The grave from Mammen. Video about Vikings.

Viking seeresses A seeress from Fyrkat? By the mid-ninth century, Ireland, Scotland and England had become major targets for Viking settlement as well as raids.

When King Charles the Bald began defending West Frankia more energetically in , fortifying towns, abbeys, rivers and coastal areas, Viking forces began to concentrate more on England than Frankia.

In the wave of Viking attacks in England after , only one kingdom—Wessex—was able to successfully resist. Viking armies mostly Danish conquered East Anglia and Northumberland and dismantled Mercia, while in King Alfred the Great of Wessex became the only king to decisively defeat a Danish army in England.

In the first half of the 10th century, English armies led by the descendants of Alfred of Wessex began reconquering Scandinavian areas of England; the last Scandinavian king, Erik Bloodaxe, was expelled and killed around , permanently uniting English into one kingdom.

Meanwhile, Viking armies remained active on the European continent throughout the ninth century, brutally sacking Nantes on the French coast in and attacking towns as far inland as Paris, Limoges, Orleans, Tours and Nimes.

In , Vikings stormed Seville then controlled by the Arabs ; in , they plundered Pisa, though an Arab fleet battered them on the way back north.

In the ninth century, Scandinavians mainly Norwegians began to colonize Iceland, an island in the North Atlantic where no one had yet settled in large numbers.

By the late 10th century, some Vikings including the famous Erik the Red moved even further westward, to Greenland. According to later Icelandic histories, some of the early Viking settlers in Greenland supposedly led by the Viking hero Leif Eriksson , son of Erik the Red may have become the first Europeans to discover and explore North America.

The midth-century reign of Harald Bluetooth as king of a newly unified, powerful and Christianized Denmark marked the beginning of a second Viking age.

Large-scale raids, often organized by royal leaders, hit the coasts of Europe and especially England, where the line of kings descended from Alfred the Great was faltering.

Crowned king of England on Christmas Day in , William managed to retain the crown against further Danish challenges. The events of in England effectively marked the end of the Viking Age.

Today, signs of the Viking legacy can be found mostly in the Scandinavian origins of some vocabulary and place-names in the areas in which they settled, including northern England, Scotland and Russia.

In Iceland, the Vikings left an extensive body of literature, the Icelandic sagas, in which they celebrated the greatest victories of their glorious past.

Miyake has derived his depiction of the goddess of death Hel with her dog Garm from a description of her appearance as half bluish-black and half flesh-coloured, indicating that she might be half dead M&M Haselnuss half alive or partly old and partly young. The plot was revived by an Icelandic cleric who compiled the YS. Lediglich Tyr, der Gott des Krieges, ist hierzu bereit. Wette Auf Englisch verliert Tyr seine Hand und die Gefahr durch den Fenriswolf ist gebannt.
Viking Age The site appears to have originated as a cemetery in the Iron Age that was expanded in the Viking Age, according to the paper. Image A map of the ship burial and site next to the images from. The Viking Age. Danish prehistory culminated in the Viking Age, the period from until AD. During the Viking Age the first kings appeared, who ruled an area roughly corresponding to present-day Denmark. On King Harald Bluetooth’s rune stone at Jelling, Denmark is named for the first time around AD. At the end of the Viking Age. Find the latest Minnesota Vikings news, rumors, trades, free agency updates and more from the insider fans and analysts at the Viking Age. Early Viking Raids. In A.D. , an attack on the Lindisfarne monastery off the coast of Northumberland in northeastern England marked the beginning of the Viking Age. Play Viking Age - Open the door to a world of ruthless, fearless warriors who laugh in the face of death and danger.

Des Charlottenburger Viking Age, um Гberhaupt erst die. - Shintaro Miyake

Universitätsbibliothek Impressum Datenschutz. The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and Ratgeber Odins Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism. Similar terms exist for other areas, such as Hiberno-Norse for Ireland and Scotland. Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. Thymejuniper berrysweet galeyarrowrue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. We Kostenlos Schpile see it on one side of the Jelling Stone, standing above a runic inscription that references his conquest of Norway and the religious conversion of Denmark. Despite this mishap, this unique spelling helps art historians differentiate the style from the place. His grandson, Thorstein the Red Viking Age, and Sigurd the MightyJarl of Orkney, invaded Scotland and were able to exact tribute from nearly half the kingdom until their deaths in battle. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religionfocusing on Thor and Odinthe gods of war and death. The presence of Carolingian deniers of cafound in among a hoard at Mullaghboden, County Limerick, where coins were neither minted nor normally used in trade, probably represents booty from the raids of — Except for Erfahrung Mit Auxmoney major trading centres of RibeHedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy, that is, the weight Divizia A precious metals. Archaeological finds from Scandinavia Viking Age Viking settlements in the British Isles support the idea of the well groomed and hygienic Viking. Other topics. Further information: Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages. Many theories are posited for the cause of the Viking invasions; the will to explore likely played a major role. Not According to Their Slaves". The Viking Age (– AD) was the period during the Middle Ages when Norsemen known as Vikings undertook large-scale raiding, colonizing, conquest More info The Last Kingdom (TV series). Viking Age. By Groove (BETSOFT) Payout / Return To Player (RTP) %: Volatility: Mid: Deposit Bonus: % Match Up To £* Payment Methods: Visa Debit, PayPal, PayViaPhone, Skrill, Trustly + More: Play For Real. New players only. Wagering occurs from real balance first. 50x wagering the bonus, contribution may vary per game. The wagering. While the mighty double-edged sword is considered to be the poster child for Viking military might, the reality is that very few Viking warriors actually owned one. During the Viking Age, swords were very expensive to make, so only the wealthy and powerful fought with them.

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